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Leafs Night

Some of our lawyers had a fun group outing at the Leafs game last night. It was even better that the Leafs won!Read More

LAT Tales: Section 55 and Consumer Instruction Legislation

By Riley Groskopf The License Appeal Tribunal (“LAT”) recently released its reconsideration decision in Iravani-Fard v. Economical Insurance, 2022 CanLII 109480. The decision addresses the consequences of a claimant’s failure to attend insurer examinations, and recognizes the rights granted to insurers by the SABS. Facts at issue The claimant wasRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly meeting, Emmanuel Couture-Tremblay discussed the recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court in Morgan v. Co-Operators General Insurance et. al., 2022 ONSC 7254. Overview This simplified procedure action involved a claim for water damage that occurred at the plaintiff’s property on December 9, 2019. Background The PlaintiffRead More

Relief From Forfeiture Denied in Late Notice Case

By Michael Kryworuk The case of Searles v. Economical Insurance, 2022 ONSC 7217, involves a dispute between the applicant homeowners and their insurer, Economical, regarding a request for reimbursement of defence costs. The applicants provided notice of an action almost seven years after the commencement of the action. History ofRead More

2023 Deductible Amounts in MVA Claims

The Financial Services Regulatory Authority of Ontario has released the updated deductible amounts in motor vehicle accident claims. In 2023, the deductible for damages for non-pecuniary loss is $44,367.24 where such damages do not exceed $147,889.59. The deductible for damages under section 61(2)(e) of the Family Law Act (loss ofRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Taya Rosenberg discussed a recent decision on a mid-trial motion for an adjournment of trial to permit the plaintiffs to obtain new expert evidence, in Carter v. Newman, 2022 ONSC 7179. Overview The plaintiffs brought a motion for an order to adjourn the trial and forRead More

The Appropriate Use and Timing of a Request to Admit

By Michael Brown While COVID-19 continues to rear its head in the Ontario court system, there have been some teachable moments arising from the pandemic and the litigation resulting from it. Recently, the Ontario Court of Appeal considered the suitability of a commonly utilized pre-trial procedure, a request to admit,Read More

Holiday Sweater Day

It’s been a fun day at the office with holiday sweaters and a pizza lunch! After careful deliberations, the Holiday Sweater Committee is pleased to announce that the prize for the best sweater goes to Alejandra Luco! Runner-up prizes are awarded to Jackie Galvin, Sumina Singh, Maryam Lenz, Michael Kryworuk,Read More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Nasra Esak discussed the recent Ontario Court of Appeal decision in 2505243 Ontario Limited ( v. Princes Gates Hotel Limited Partnership, 2022 ONCA 859. The Court of Appeal upheld a decision of Justice Gilmore in which a commercial landlord was found to have operated inRead More

Alleged Impecuniosity Insufficient to Bar Costs Award

By Meryl Rodrigues In a recent Costs Endorsement decision in Kesete v. Gaspar[i], the Ontario Superior Court addressed an argument that a plaintiff’s alleged impecuniosity should bar any – or anything more than nominal – costs being awarded to a successful defendant. The decision followed a 14-day jury trial, inRead More

Divisional Court Strikes Appeal of LAT Decision as Premature

In Kahissay v. Intact Insurance, 2022 ONSC 6357, a statutory accident benefits claimant appealed a decision of an adjudicator of the Licence Appeal Tribunal related to attending insurer’s medical examinations. The Divisional Court issued a notice indicating that the court was considering dismissing the appeal on the basis that itRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Katrina Taibi discussed the recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court in Chevrier v. Orsanic, 2022 ONSC 6508. Overview: In this case, one of the defendants brought a motion to: set aside a noting in default against her;allow her to file a Statement of DefenceRead More

Ontario Energy Group’s ONSC Action Stayed Pending Outcome of Small Claims Court Actions

By Kathryn Orydzuk In MDG Newmarket Inc. v Symonds, 2022 ONSC 6481, Justice Vermette rendered a decision on an interesting motion that touched upon the doctrine of abuse of process, and when commencing a separate action in the Superior Court may effectively be considered an attempt to transfer a matterRead More

Franz Lopez Joins Rogers Partners

Franz Lopez joined Rogers Partners today as an associate lawyer. We’re very happy to welcome Franz to the firm! Prior to attending law school, Franz was an environmental scientist. He recently achieved a Master of Laws degree, specializing in Energy and Infrastructure Law. During his articles, Franz assisted with severalRead More

2022 Holiday Party

Everyone was in a festive spirit at our firm’s holiday party! It was fun to spend quality time with such a terrific group of people!Read More

LAT TALES – Surveillance: To disclose or not to disclose

By Jennifer Singh In Nick Vassos v. Heartland Farm Mutual Inc. [1] the LAT denied a motion brought by the applicant to exclude the following from the hearing: Surveillance video;Any report or assessor who relied on the surveillance; andAll evidence used in relation to the surveillance. Background The applicant wasRead More

Damages for Arm Fracture

The decision of Cornwall v. Al Bloushi, 2022 ONSC 6388, involves an undefended trial in a personal injury action. The plaintiff was 69 years old at the time of a slip and fall accident.  She sustained a humerus fracture of her right arm.  Surgery was not performed. The plaintiff hasRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Nasra Esak discussed a recent Ontario Superior Court decision granting a summary judgement brought by the defendant in Strilchuck v. Tecumseh (Town of), 2022 ONSC 5841. Overview Justice King granted a summary judgement brought by the Town (the defendant) to dismiss a trip and fall personalRead More

Court Of Appeal Upholds Denial of Interlocutory Injunction on Hospitals’ Mandatory Vaccination Policy Pending Labour Arbitration

By Erin Crochetière In National Organized Workers Union v. Sinai Health System, 2022 ONCA 802, the Court of Appeal considered the jurisdiction of the Superior Court in the context of a labour arbitration. In the underlying labour arbitration, the Appellant, the National Organized Workers Union, disputed the Respondent hospitals’ mandatoryRead More

Brian Sunohara and Erin Crochetière Win Trial

Congratulations to Brian Sunohara and Erin Crochetière for their success at a recent trial! The decision was released yesterday. The case of Leendertse v. His Majesty the King in Right of Ontario, 2022 ONSC 6395, involves an accident where the plaintiff was riding a bicycle and was struck by aRead More

Lawyers Seek to Reinstitute King’s Counsel Designation

There was recently an interesting article in Law Times called “Veteran litigator calls for Ontario to reinstitute KC designation“. According to this article, there is growing support for Ontario to reinstitute the King’s Counsel (formerly Queen’s Counsel) designation as it would help Ontario lawyers in the international legal arena. TheRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Taya Rosenberg discussed the recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court in Aviva General Insurance Company v. Catic, 2022 ONSC 6000. Overview This case was concerned with the interpretation of subsection 38(11)2 of the Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule (“SABS”), which sets out the consequences forRead More

Courts Have Limited Ability To Interfere With Arbitration Awards

By Athina Ionita In Mensula Bancorp Inc. v. Halton Condominium Corporation No. 137, 2022 ONCA 769, the Court of Appeal considered the application of s. 46(1)3 of the Arbitration Act, 1991, S.O. 1991, c. 17 (“the Act”), and when a court may interfere with an arbitration award. Background The appellant,Read More

Damages for Foot Injury

The case of Raskin v. Stepanyan, 2022 ONSC 6247, involves an undefended personal injury trial. The plaintiff was involved in a trip and fall accident.  She was 64 years old at the time of the accident. She sustained a fracture of the fifth metatarsal on the right foot.  She woreRead More

Rogers Partners 2022 Client Party

We had a fun time last night at our client party at Stratus! Thank you to our clients for a memorable evening. It was great to catch up!Read More

Don’t @ Me — Twitter Callout Causes Contempt

By Annie Levanaj The Post v. Hillier trilogy of cases is important in demonstrating the serious consequences individuals can face for failure to comply with court orders in civil actions. Part 1: Post v. Hillier, 2022 ONSC 3793 The initial decision dealt with a defamation action. The plaintiff, Ms. Post,Read More

Court Permits Amendment Into Simplified Procedure in Non-Jury Case

In Sutherland Estate v. London Health Sciences Centre, 2022 ONSC 5942, the plaintiffs sought to amend the Statement of Claim to limit the claim to $200,000 and to continue the action under the Simplified Procedure.  The defendants opposed the amendment. A patient sustained injuries while at a hospital.  Over fiveRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Katrina Taibi discussed the recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court in Diebold v. Economical Mutual Insurance Company, 2022 ONSC 5592. Overview This case involved a Rule 21.01(1)(a) motion to determine whether the defendant, Economical Mutual Insurance Company, is entitled to a deduction for theRead More

Income Replacement Benefits – To Deduct or Not To Deduct CPP Disability, EI and CERB?

By Amanda Colarossi Where a claimant is entitled to income replacement benefits (“IRB”), the accident benefits insurer is entitled to certain deductions when calculating the weekly IRB amount payable to the claimant. Calculating the Weekly Base Amount IRBs are paid at 70% of the claimant’s pre-accident gross income earnings, upRead More

Non-Earner Benefits Not Deductible from Loss of Income

The decision of Kolapully v. TTC et al., 2022 ONSC 6024, involved an accident between a pedestrian and a bus. At trial, the plaintiff was awarded $150,000 for past loss of income (after accounting for contributory negligence). The plaintiff had previously received over $95,000 in non-earner benefits in an accident benefitsRead More

Discovery and Proportionality

Rule 29.2.03 of the Rules of Civil Procedure is sometimes overlooked when counsel conduct discoveries and make production requests. This rule was recently considered in Gurprasad v. Kim, 2022 ONSC 5753. The rule states: 29.2.03 (1) In making a determination as to whether a party or other person must answerRead More

Cross-Examination on Criminal Charges Not Permitted

In Rana et al v. Ramzan et al, 2022 ONSC 5669, a witness called by the defendants denied in examination-in-chief ever being convicted of a criminal offence. In cross-examination, plaintiffs’ counsel sought to cross-examine the witness on information contained in a document which indicated that the witness had been chargedRead More

Happy Diwali!

Rogers Partners wishes a Happy Diwali to all those celebrating! Diwali is a “festival of lights” that celebrates the triumph of light over dark and good over evil, and the blessings of victory, freedom, and enlightenment. It’s an important religious festival originating in India.Read More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Taya Rosenberg discussed the Ontario Court of Appeal’s decision in AIG Insurance Company of Canada v. Lloyd’s Underwriters, 2022 ONCA 699. This case was on appeal from AIG Insurance Company of Canada v. Lloyd’s Underwriters, 2021 ONSC 5372. AIG brought an application seeking equitable contributionRead More

Supreme Court Denies Leave in Stay of Action Due to Failure to Immediately Disclose Partial Settlement

In a previous blog post, we discussed the Court of Appeal’s decision in Tallman Truck Centre Limited v. K.S.P. Holdings Inc., 2022 ONCA 66. The Court of Appeal upheld the stay of an action due to the failure to immediately disclose a partial settlement agreement. The Supreme Court of CanadaRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly meeting, Emmanuel Couture-Tremblay discussed the recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court in Hawke v. Western University, 2022 ONSC 5243. Overview This case involved a complaint regarding the collection of private health information by Western University pursuant to its COVID-19 Vaccination Policy published August 22, 2022. BackgroundRead More

Undue Delays in Obtaining Approval of Settlement: What to do?

By J. Nicholas Fernandes The basic tenet of Rule 7.08 of the Rules of Civil Procedure is that any settlement of a claim by or against a person under disability, including minors, requires Court approval.  On a motion (or application, if settlement occurs prior to a lawsuit being commenced) to obtainRead More

Welcome Back Rebecca Moore!

We’re delighted to announce the return of Rebecca Moore from maternity leave. Today is Rebecca’s first day back with the firm, and she’s looking forward to reconnecting with clients and colleagues!Read More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Taya Rosenberg discussed the Ontario Superior Court’s threshold motion decision in Kolapully v. TTC et al., 2022 ONSC 5473. Facts On March 6, 2012, Ms. Kolapully, the plaintiff, was crossing the road at a corner when she was struck by a turning TTC bus. Ms.Read More

Is Summary Judgment Available in Arbitrations?

By Natalia Sheikh The Ontario Court of Appeal recently released a decision in Optiva Inc. v. Tbaytel, 2022 ONCA 646, upholding an application judge’s arising from an arbitration involving a breach of contract claim. One of the main issues in dispute was whether the arbitrator had jurisdiction to hear andRead More

National Day for Truth and Reconciliation

Two members of our Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Committee, Nasra Esak and Katrina Taibi, provided a seminar on issues related to National Day for Truth and Reconciliation. The slides prepared by Nasra and Katrina can be found here. We discussed the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Committee, and waysRead More

Building Inspections: The Ongoing Duty

By Michael Kryworuk On September 1, 2022, the Ontario Court of Appeal released its decision in Breen v. Lake of Bays (Township), 2022 ONCA 626, upholding the trial judge’s finding that once a building permit is granted, a municipality has an obligation to inspect the building whether or not theRead More

Court Backlog Not Good Reason to Strike Jury Notice

In Kromah, et al. v. Lepore, et al., 2022 ONSC 4830, the plaintiffs sought to conditionally strike a jury notice in a civil action commenced in London, Ontario. The trial was scheduled to commence in September 2022. Justice Nicholson recognized the backlog of criminal and family matters in all regions,Read More

Fridays With Rogers Partners

At our weekly firm meeting, we discussed the case of Bouzanis v. Greenwood et al, 2022 ONSC 5262.  The decision involves a motion by the defendants to enforce a settlement. The plaintiff’s lawyer e-mailed the defendants’ lawyer indicating that the plaintiff was offering to settle the litigation on the basisRead More

Ontario Court of Appeal Reminds Litigants that COVID-19 Itself Does Not Justify Delay

By: Michael C. Brown In a previous RP Blog post, we discussed the Ontario Court of Appeal decision in Mugizi v. Ngo, 2022 ONCA 595, but we wish to expand on that post given the importance of the message it carries from the Court. Litigating in a post-COVID-19 era has provenRead More

Fridays with Rogers Partners

At our weekly meeting, Emmanuel Couture-Tremblay discussed the recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court in Qureshi v. Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Company, 2022 ONSC 4997. Overview This case involved water damage to store inventory that occurred on October 7, 2014 and again on February 12, 2015. The plaintiff,Read More

Motion for Defence Medical Exam Brought Too Close to Trial

In Lafontaine v. McDaniel, 2022 ONSC 5153, the court dismissed the defendant’s motion to compel the plaintiff to attend a neuropsychology expert assessment and to extend the deadline to serve the expert’s report. The motion was heard on August 5, 2022. The proposed expert examination was scheduled for August 9,Read More

Court Reinforces Obligation to Disclose Partial Settlement Agreements

By Meryl Rodrigues In its recent decision of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board v. Zizek, 2022 ONCA 638, the Court of Appeal added to its recent line of authority with respect to disclosure obligations on a party who enters into a partial settlement agreement, such as a Mary Carter or PierringerRead More

Key Factor in Non-Lawyer Representing Corporation

In Leblanc v. The Personal Insurance Co. et al., 2022 ONSC 5130, the sole shareholder of a corporate party sought to represent the corporation. This individual is not a lawyer. Rule 15.01(2) of the Rules of Civil Procedure states that a corporate party must be represented by a lawyer, exceptRead More

Meryl Rodrigues Published in Canadian Journal of Insurance Law

An article by Meryl Rodrigues, “Court of Appeal Upholds Coverage Denial for Intrusion Upon Seclusion“, has been published in Canadian Journal of Insurance Law. The article addresses an appeal of a duty to defend action commenced by a nurse against a commercial liability insurer. The nurse had wrongfully accessed theRead More

Court Demands Evidence that Minor SABs Claimant is not CAT on Settlement Approval Application

By Kathryn Orydzuk On August 30, 2022, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice heard an application in writing with regard to the case of Ellen Yebin Park v. Pembridge Insurance Company, 2022 ONSC 4944. This case arose from a motor vehicle accident involving a minor pedestrian. The minor applicant commencedRead More

Fridays With Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Nasra Esak discussed the Ontario Superior Court’s trial decision in Wabie v. Wilson, 2022 ONSC 4296. Overview The plaintiff, Ms. Waibe, was injured in a motor vehicle accident on August 20, 2014. She later commenced an action against the other driver, claiming damages for injuriesRead More

Summary Judgment Motions: Put Your Best Foot Forward

By Jennifer Singh In Sabaratnam v. Mooka, 2022 ONSC 4779,the plaintiff moved for summary judgment against the defendants, seeking general and punitive damages for defamation. The plaintiff’s motion was granted in part. Factual Background At all material times, the plaintiff was a member of the GTA Tamil community and anRead More

Patent Defects vs. Latent Defects in House Purchase

In Purdy v. Russell, 2022 ONSC 4692, the plaintiff commenced a lawsuit over the purchase of a house. The house had a rotting foundation which required reconstruction. The plaintiff sued the vendors of the house. The defendants brought a summary judgment motion. Justice Aston went over the test of when a vendorRead More

Multiple Lawyers from Rogers Partners in The Best Lawyers in Canada

Rogers Partners LLP is pleased to announce that the following lawyers have been selected for inclusion in the 2023 edition of The Best Lawyers in Canada™:  Stephen Ross, Kevin Adams, Anita Varjacic, Brian Sunohara, and David Rogers.Read More

Court of Appeal Upholds Partial Summary Judgment and Awards Full Indemnity Costs

By Erin Crochetière In NDrive, Navigation Systems S.A. v. Zhou[1] the Court of Appeal for Ontario heard an appeal from a decision granting partial summary judgment with respect to the claims against some of the defendants, and dismissing the counterclaim of the same defendants. The appellants, collectively referred to asRead More

Court of Appeal Upholds Dismissal for Delay

The Court of Appeal’s decision in Mugizi v. Ngo, 2022 ONCA 595, shows the risks of not moving actions forward. The plaintiff was involved in a motor vehicle accident in January 2014. An action was commenced in March 2015. The action was struck from the trial list in December 2019Read More

Court Considers Abuse of Process in Subsequent Proceeding Commenced by Plaintiff

In Doria v. Warner Bros. Entertainment Canada Inc. et al., 2022 ONSC 4454, the court considered when a further proceeding can be commenced arising out of the same facts. The plaintiff rented out his house to a film production company. His family room floor was scratched. He commenced an arbitrationRead More

Fridays With Rogers Partners

At our weekly Friday meeting, Katrina Taibi discussed the Licence Appeal Tribunal’s decision in Garvey v. Economical Insurance Company, 2022 CanLII 73099 (ON LAT). Overview The appellant, Ms. Garvey, was injured in a motor vehicle accident on August 23, 2018.  She brought a claim for statutory accident benefits pursuant toRead More

Noisy Neighbour? You May Not Be Entitled To A Legal Remedy

By Athina Ionita Introduction In Kikites v. York Condominium Corporation No. 382, 2022 ONSC 4606, a condominium unit owner (the Applicant) complains of noises coming from the upstairs unit. The Applicant seeks a number of remedies under the Condominium Act, 1998, SO 1998, c. 19, alleging that the condominium corporationRead More

Dispute Over Defence Medical Exam in LTD Claim

The case of Terra v. Desjardins Financial Security Life Assurance Company, 2022 ONSC 4673, involves a dispute over a defence medical examination in a long-term disability benefits claim. Prior to the commencement of the action, the plaintiff attended a psychiatric assessment with Dr. Chad at the request of the defendantRead More

Riley Groskopf Joins Rogers Partners

Riley Groskopf has joined our growing team! Riley comes to us from another insurance defence firm where his practice included defending claims involving motor vehicle accidents (tort and accident benefits), occupiers’ liability, and property loss. We’re happy to have Riley on board!Read More

Availability of Judicial Review in SABS Disputes

By Annie Levanaj The Court of Appeal’s decision in Yatar v. TD Insurance Meloche Monnex, 2022 ONCA 446, provides guidance on how judicial review should be dealt with when a statutory right to appeal also exists. It also reinforces the importance of limitation periods and ensuring claims are commenced inRead More

Slip and Fall Near Car Not “Accident” for SABS Coverage

In Namin v. Allstate Insurance Company of Canada, 2022 CanLII 70251 (ON LAT), Vice-Chair Maedel of the Licence Appeal Tribunal held that an incident wherein the applicant slipped and fell on snow and ice after exiting her vehicle was not an “accident” under the Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule. The descriptionRead More

Insurance Coverage Seminar

Our firm regularly conducts training seminars for our lawyers and students as part of our Litigation Strategy Series. Yesterday, Andrew Yolles presented on Insurance Coverage. Andrew prepared a helpful set of slides addressing the following issues: First party vs. third party coverage;Different types of liability coverage;Determining coverage: duty to defendRead More

Amendments to Superior Court’s Notice to the Profession

The Ontario Superior Court of Justice’s Notice to the Profession, Parties, Public and the Media was amended on August 2, 2022. Regarding civil matters, the amendments are contained in Part II, paragraphs 1 to 4 of the Notice. These amendments are as follows: Parties must provide accurate time estimates forRead More

LAT Limits Use of Insurer Examination Report Based on Improper Notice to Applicant

By Amanda Colarossi Overview Section 44 of the Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule (“SABS”) outlines the requirements of an insurer when scheduling an insurer examination (“IE”). The Licence Appeal Tribunal (“Tribunal”) can, on a motion, create remedies for any breaches of s.44. This was the situation in Waring v. Aviva GeneralRead More

Rogers Partners Carnival Potluck

Last week, we had a potluck lunch at our firm in celebration of Caribbean Carnival weekend and in recognition of Emancipation Day. Thank you to our Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Committee for organizing the lunch and to everyone who contributed to and participated in the event.Read More

Pleadings Seminar

Meryl Rodrigues presented an in-firm seminar for our lawyers and students this morning on Pleadings. Meryl addressed several issues to consider when preparing a statement of defence, including: Examining whether the client was properly named;Checking if the claim was issued in time;Assessing whether the court has jurisdiction;Seeing if other entitiesRead More

Athina Ionita Published in Ontario Accident Benefit Case Summaries

An article by Athina Ionita on the exclusive jurisdiction of the Licence Appeal Tribunal over statutory accident benefits disputes has been published in Ontario Accident Benefit Case Summaries, a LexisNexis publication. The article can be found here.Read More

Introducing Our New Articling Students

We’d like to extend a very warm welcome to our new articling students! Emmanuel Couture-Tremblay, Nasra Esak, Taya Rosenberg, and Katrina Taibi started with the firm this week. Congratulations to our new students on completing law school and entering the next phase of their journeys to becoming lawyers!Read More

Court Considers Criminal and Intentional Act Exclusions in Person Found Not Criminally Responsible

The case of Butterfield v. Intact Insurance Company, 2022 ONSC 4060, involves a duty to defend application against an insurer.  The applicant, who has schizophrenia, suffered a psychotic episode while at a firearms store.  He stabbed the store owner in the honest but deluded belief that he was defending himselfRead More

Mind Your Step

By J. Nicholas Fernandes Overview The Occupiers’ Liability Act places a positive duty on occupiers to take such care as is reasonable in the circumstances to ensure that persons entering upon their premises are reasonably safe when doing so. The duty of care in each case is fact specific and takesRead More

Appeal in LAT Proceeding Dismissed as Premature

In Grewal v. Peel Mutual Insurance Company, 2022 ONSC 4082, the Divisional Court confirmed that an appeal in a regulatory proceeding, such as a matter before the Licence Appeal Tribunal, must wait until there is a final determination of the claim. The matter in issue involved a statutory accident benefitsRead More

Fridays With Rogers Partners

At our weekly meeting, Michael Kryworuk discussed the court’s decision in Aditi v. Doe, 2022 ONSC 4049. Michael has written the following summary of the decision. History of the Litigation This case involved a dispute between a motorist and her insurer. The plaintiff, Ms. Aditi, was insured by Intact. TheRead More